The revolt of 1857 was the result of military dissent and rebellion against British occupation in northern and central India. This rebellion ended the rule of British East India in India and for the next 90 years, most of the Indian subcontinent prepared a path to bring under the direct rule of the British government (British Raj). The main reasons for this revolt were social and religious, economic, military and political.
The revolt of 1857 was the result of military dissent and rebellion against British occupation in northern and central India. Incident of military dissatisfaction such as arson in the Cantonment area was started from January but later in May these sporadic incidents took the form of a massive movement or revolt in the respective area. This rebellion ended the rule of British East India in India and for the next 90 years, most of the Indian subcontinent prepared a path to bring under the direct rule of the British government (British Raj).
Due to rebellion
The use of fatted cartridges and issues related to soldiers was considered to be the main reason for this rebellion, but the current research has proved that the use of cartridges was not the only reason for the rebellion and neither the main reason. In fact this revolt was the result of many causes of socio-economic-political-religious etc.
• Social and Religious Causes: The British passed the act of non-interference in the social-religious life of Indians and the abolition of Sati-practice (1829) and Hindu-widow remarriage (1856). Christian missionaries were allowed to enter India and to preach religion. According to the Act, according to the Act, the Religious Disabilities Act of 1950 was amended in the laws of the Hindu, The father’s property will not be denied.
• Economic reason: British rule ended rural self-sufficiency. Commercialization of agriculture increased the burden on the farming class. Apart from this, adopting free trade policy, discouraging the establishment of industries and extracting of funds, etc. factors completely destroyed the economy.
Military reasons: The expansion of the British colonies in India badly affected the conditions of the sepoy, without assigning any additional allowance to them, appointments far away from their homes. The important reason for the military dissatisfaction was the General Service Enlistment Act , 1856, by which the sepoys were made compulsory to cross the sea when required. Free posting facility for the soldiers received by the Postal Office Act of 1954 was also withdrawn.
Political Reason: The final expansion of British territory in India was in the rule of Dalhousie. Dalhousie announced in 1849 that the successors of Bahadur Shah II would have to leave the Red Fort. Inclusion of Baaghat and Udaipur was abolished in any way and they remained subject to their rulers. When Dalhousie tried to implement the principle of lapsed on Karauli (Rajasthan), his decision was dismissed by the Court of Directors.
Various leaders associated with the revolt of 1857
Barrackpore Mangal Pandey
Delhi Bahadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan
Delhi Hakim Ahsanullah (Chief Advisor to Bahadur Shah II)
Lucknow Begum Hazrat Mahal, Bijris Qadir, Ahmadullah (Former Nawab of Awadh
Kanpur Nana Sahib, Rao Sahib (nephew of Nana Sahib), Tantya
Tope, Azimullah Khan (Advisor to Nana Sahib)
Jhansi Rani Laxmibai
Bihar (Jagdishpur) Kunwar Singh, Amar Singh
Allahabad and Banaras Maulvi Liaquat Ali
Faizabad Maulvi Ahmadullah (He called the rebellion against Jihadis against the British
Farrukhabad Tufjal Hasan Khan
Bijnor mohammad khan
Moradabad Abdul Ali Khan
Bareilly Khan Bahadur Khan
Mandsaur Feroze Shah
Gwalior / Kanpur Tantya Tope
Assam Kandapreshwar Singh, Maniram Dutta
Orissa Surendra Shahi, Ujjwal Shahi
Kullu Raja Pratap Singh
Rajasthan Jayadayal Singh, Hardayal Singh
Gorakhpur Gajadhar Singh
Mathura Sevi Singh, Kadam Singh
British officers related to revolt
General John Nicholson took over Delhi on 20 September 1857 (soon
Nicholson died of a stab wound in a fight.)
Major Hudson killed Bahadur Shah’s sons and grandchildren in Delhi.
Sir Hugh Wheeler faced Nana Sahib’s army until 26 June 1857
British Army secured from Allahabad on 27th
Surrender after receiving assurance of exit
General Neil regained Benares and Allahabad in June 1857
Took in. The killing of the British by Nana Sahib’s army
In retaliation, he killed Indians in Kanpur
He died in Lucknow during the struggle with the rebels.
Sir Colin Campbell, he finally settled in Kanpur on 6 December 1857.
Took possession. Lucknow last on 21 March 1858
Occupied | Reclaimed Bareilly on 5 May 1858
Henry Lawrence Oudh Chief Administrator, whose assassination by rebels 2
Tax during the capture of Lucknow Residency on July 1857
Major General Havelock -> defeated Nana Sahib’s army on 17 July 1857
He died in Lucknow on December 1857
William Taylor and Eyre suppressed the rebellion in Ara in August 1857.
Hugh Rose suppressed the rebellion in Jhansi and on 20 June 1858
And brought Bundelkhand back under British rule.
Colonel Onsell captured Benares.
The revolt of 1857 was an important event in Indian history. Although it was initiated by the rebellion of the soldiers, it was an expression of complaints and problems of those who disgruntled with the company’s administration and disliked foreign rule.